Are you preparing to take your GCSE’s in biology? Don’t panic. There are a number of resources that are designed to ensure you pass your GCSE’s with flying colors or even get A-Star. If you are new to biology, then the Introduction to Basic Biology course is a great place to start. This course will introduce you to the basic biology concepts you need in just a few short weeks. The course includes over thirty lectures that will explain what the scientific method is and will teach you the basic chemistry of biology. It will cover all the essential knowledge you’ll need for your exam: atomic structures and bonds and describes the primary macromolecules, including the structures and functions. It will teach you to identify all of the anatomical parts of a typical animal and plant cell and will teach your the processes of cellular respiration and photosynthesis. It also covers DNA, genes and genetics to make sure you have a good basic understanding of biology.
I will offer some basic biology questions and answers to help you prepare for your examinations here.
Biology Questions – Plant and Animal Cells
Biology questions relating to plant and animals cells normally include questions about the structure and function of the various elements that make up plant cells and animal cells. It is important to know the structures that make up these cells and it is also important that you can identify these structures or even draw them. The following questions are common questions you could expect about plant and animal cells:
Question 1: Name and describe the elements that make up the structure of a typical animal cell.
The cell membrane of a cell is the thin layer that forms the skin of the cell. The cell membrane protects the cell, it gives the cell its shape and it also controls what goes in and out of a cell.
The nucleus of a cell contains all of the genetic material of the organism in the form of DNA. The nucleus of a cell controls all of the chemical processes that occur within the cell. It contains the information needed to reproduce the cell.
The cytoplasm of the cell is the jelly like substance that makes up the interior of the cell. All chemical reactions and processes that occur in the cell, occur in the cytoplasm of the cell. These chemical reactions are what keeps the cell alive. The enzymes found within the cytoplasm are used for the chemical reactions.
The mitochondria of the cell produce energy for the cell. The mitochondria are found within the cytoplasm and their job is to convert oxygen and glucose into energy for the cell.
Question 2: Name and describe the elements that make up the structure of a typical plant cell.
The chloroplasts are small rounded structures that contain chlorophyll. Chlorophyll is a green pigment that allows the plant to absorb sunlight so that the plant can photosynthesize sunlight into energy.
The mitochondria of the cells can be found in the cytoplasm of the cell. Mitochondria are responsible for cell respiration and they allow the plant cell to produce energy from glucose and oxygen.
The cytoplasm of a plant cell is a jelly like substance that fills the interior of the cell. The cytoplasm is the place where all chemical reactions within the cell take place. The reactions are controlled by the enzymes contained within the cytoplasm.
The cell wall of the cell protects the thinner cell membrane. In plants the cell wall is constructed from cellulose and the cell walls of the cells provide plants with the strength and support.
All plants cells contain a nucleus which contains all of the genetic material of the plant. The nucleus allows the cells to reproduce and also controls all of the chemical reactions that occur within the cells.
Each plant cell contains a large vacuole that provides the plant with extra strength and support. The vacuole is filled with a salt and sugar solution called cell sap.
Each plant cell has a cell membrane which forms the skin of the cell. The cell membrane gives the cell its shape and the cell membrane controls the elements that enter or exit the cell.
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Name two types of specialized animal cells and describe their functions
Red Blood cells contain hemoglobin. Red blood cells are responsible for transporting oxygen to other cells within the body. Red Blood cells are biconcave in shape. This is to ensure they have the maximum surface area to allow efficient oxygen absorption. These cells have a thin outer cell membrane to help increase the amount of oxygen the cell can absorb. These cells also do not contain a nucleus so that the cell can absorb as much oxygen as possible.
Nerve cells are elongated cells that help to transmit electrical impulses within the body. They are responsible for transmitting impulses from one part of the body to another. Nerve cells have dendrites that are branch like protrusions at each end of the nerve cell. The dendrites spread out at either end of the nerve cell body and make connections with other nerve cells. Nerve cells also contain a long nerve fiber called an axon that carries the impulse within the nerve cell.
Name two types of specialized plant cells and describe their functions
Two types of specialized plant cells includes the xylem cell and the root hair cells of the plant.
Xylem cells within the plant are long tube structures that carry water around the plant. Their main function is the transportation of water and they have no end walls so that they in effect form a water pipeline for the plant. Their walls are strengthened by rings of lignin so that they can effectively resist the water pressure whilst transporting the water.
Root hair cells are found on the roots of plants. The root hair cells are responsible for absorbing water and minerals from the surrounding soil. They are specialized root epidermis cells that are in direct contact with the surrounding soil of the plant. Root hair cells have thin walls and long fingerlike projections to allow them to spread out in the soil for maximum absorption by increasing the surface area of the root.
Define the process of Osmosis and describe the process of osmosis in animal and plant cells
Osmosis is an example of the diffusion process. It is a process whereby water molecules move from a weak or dilute solution to a concentrated solution through a permeable membrane. Osmotic pressure causes the water molecules to move from low concentrations to high concentrations to try to equalize osmotic pressure within the system.
Animal cells have a permeable membrane and are therefore susceptible to the process of osmosis. The cytoplasm of the animal cell contains various enzymes and minerals making the cytoplasm a fairly concentrated solution. If a cell is placed in pure water, then osmotic pressure causes water to enter the cell.
Plant cells use osmosis as a means to take up water from the soil. The cell sap contained in the vacuoles of the plant cells cause the cells to absorb and transport water throughout the plant. As water enters the plant cells, the cells swell up and the water moves into the vacuoles which also swell and push against the cell wall of the cell. When the cell is full it is called turgid and turgid cells gives plants their strength. If the plant cell loses water through osmosis then the cell is called flaccid and plant wilts as a result.
Prepare for your GCSE in Biology
There are lots of online resources to help you successfully prepare for your GCSE Biology exams. The key to success in Biology is understanding how the various mechanisms works and learning the facts. The truth is that you need to take the time to study and memorize the topics for your exams. There are lots of resources to help you learn and understand Biology but there are no shortcuts to study. You just need to put in the time and you will be successful.
For more information on GCSE Science and Biology B2, sign up for the GCSE Biology course today. This course includes over forty lectures that will teach you all about genes, enzymes and genetics. The course contains over forty lectures that cover protein synthesis, genetic engineering, mitosis, meiosis, cloning and stem cells.