White Hat Hacking: An Ethical Approach towards Hacking

white hat hackingHackers are usually considered mischievous souls trying to penetrate a computer system while exploiting loop-holes in the system. As a matter of fact, this perception is true to some extent. A hacker identifies the vulnerabilities in a system and by exploiting those vulnerabilities accesses the whole PC or a software application that he was otherwise not authorize to access. However, hacking can be categorized into two broader classes based on the purpose and intent of the hacking attack.

Black Hat Hacking

Black hat hacking is the type of hacking where a malicious hacker hacks a computer system for the sake of accessing secret information, damaging the software application or inflicting any other damage to the system. The intent of the black hat hacker is malicious and unethical. Many major websites have faced such black hat hacking attacks in the near past. A typical example of black hat hacking attack is the DDOS (Double Denial of Service) attacks where huge numbers of simultaneous requests put a huge load on the server and eventually the server stops responding. In short, the purpose of black hat hacking is negative and malicious and used to inflict financial or reputation loss to the owner of the system being hacked.

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C# XML LINQ: A Basic Introduction

c# xml linqTo allow data communication between different systems having different deployment environments and implementations, a common data format is required. Extensible Markup Language (XML), which is a platform-independent, simple human readable format to represent simple as well as complex data. XML can be used for transferring data between different systems with different implementations and environments.

’LINQ’ (Language Integrated Query) is a set of features to extend a query capability of the C# language by providing an IntelliSence and syntax highlighting features. As ‘LINQ’ is integrated in a C# language therefore, debugging of the ‘LINQ’ queries are possible using the integrated debugger. LINQ can be used to query almost any collection of data including the XML DOM. This article explains how LINQ can be used to interact with XML documents.

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Best Computer Languages to Learn

best computer language to learn“What are some of the best computer languages to learn?” This is one of the most commonly asked questions by novice computer programmers planning to pursue a career in software development. However, the answer to this question is not simple. There are hundreds of programming languages currently being used for different types of software development. While most of the programming languages have some common functionality, they are usually different in terms of the applications they develop and the platform they target.

Selecting a programming language to learn is highly subjective and depends on the type of applications you want to develop. This article gives a brief introduction to some of the most widely used programming languages.

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Understanding the C# Override Operator

c# override operatorThe foundation of any object-oriented language is laid on three pillars: Inheritance, Encapsulation and Polymorphism. C#, like all other object oriented languages support these features. Of the three core features of an object-oriented languages, inheritance is the most useful and most fascinating feature since it fosters code organization and reusability. Inheritance in OOP is similar to the inheritance in real life. People inherit characteristics of their parents; for instance tall people usually have tall parents and short people have shorter. Similarly, children can have some characteristics that were not necessarily present in their parents.

Inheritance in programming is based on the same idea where child classes inherit characteristic of the parent classes. In addition they contain some intrinsic characteristics that are not present in the parent class. The C# override operator is an operator that overrides the variables or methods in the parent class with the same name and provides its own implementations for those properties or methods.

To understand the role of the C# override operator in OOP, it is necessary to have a solid understanding of inheritance in C#. Therefore, before diving into its usage, it is a good idea to review how inheritance is implemented in C#.

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Introduction to Computer Network Layers with Reference to the OSI Model

network layersA computer network is a group or groups of computers and other computing devices that are linked together through some communication channel for exchanging data, resource sharing and general purpose communication. The internal functions of this communication system are elaborated, characterized and standardized using the Open Systems Interconnection model (OSI) reference model. OSI, a networking abstract model, groups these internal functions into seven layers where each layer interacts with only its immediate layers. Each layer processes data passed by one of its adjoining layer and prepares new data for other layers. The following table contains network layers referenced by an OSI model.

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Objective C tutorial for beginners

objectivectutorialforbeginnersObjective C is an object-oriented language, based on the C programming language with an addition of ‘Small Talk’ programming extensions. It was developed by ‘NeXT’ and then was shortly adapted by Apple for the development of some core parts of ‘IOS’ and ‘MAC OS X’ operating systems. Objective C is also used to develop the ‘Cocoa’ and ‘Cocoa Touch’ API’s as well as ‘MAC OS X’ and ‘IOS’ applications developed in those platforms. Since ‘Objective C’ is a superset of C language, it is easy to use ‘C’ and even ‘C++’ in same ‘Cocoa’ applications that use Objective C. [Read more…]

Introduction to LAN, WAN and MAN: Networking Tutorial

lan wan manA computer network consists of two or more computers that are interconnected with each other and share resources such as printers, servers, and hardware and exchange the data in the form of files, facilitating electronic communication. Computers on a network can be connected through twisted pair cables, telephone lines, radio waves, satellites or optical fiber cables. The first computer network designed was the ‘Advanced Research Projects Agency Network (ARPANET)’ by the United States Department of Defense. Since then, myriads of new computer networking technologies have been designed. This tutorial only covers the first three network technologies i.e LAN, WAN and MAN. However, currently there are multiple networking technologies in use which have been enlisted below.

  • Local Area Network (LAN)
  • Wide Area Network (WAN)
  • Metropolitan Area Network (MAN)
  • Wireless Local Area Network (WLAN)
  • Storage Area Network (SAN)
  • Controller Area Network (CAN)
  • Personal Area Network (PAN)
  • Global Area Network (GAN)
  • Internet Area Network (IAN)

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Understanding C# Pass by Reference and Pass by Value

c# pass by referenceC# is an object oriented language architected by Microsoft for the development of a variety of applications that run via .NET framework.  Like every object oriented language, C# contains objects, methods, variables, properties and events. And similar to other object oriented languages, C# methods take parameters. There are two ways in which parameters can be passed to a method in C#: Pass by value and pass by reference. This article describes basic difference between the two. The article contains basic examples that demonstrate how a parameter is passed by reference and by value, along with their implications. [Read more…]

C scanf Function: Getting User Input in the C language

c scanfGetting user input is integral to interactive applications such as games, real time systems and other event-driven applications. This input decides the execution of particular functionality of a system. In the C language, any program or application with a command line interface uses the ‘scanf’ method for this purpose.

What is C Scanf Function?

The C ‘scanf’ method is a function located in a ‘stdio’ library. It is used to read a formatted input including a character, string, and numeric data  from Standard Input (stdin), which is generally a keyboard. Though scanf is an extremely useful function in simpler programs, it does not effectively handle human input errors. This makes the C ‘scanf’ function a little unreliable and hence should only be used to implement simple programs where reliability is not a priority.

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StringBuilder C# Tutorial for Beginners

stringbuilder c#In order to store a string type data, the .NET framework contains a String class that enables programmers to manipulate text strings. The String class comes with a variety of built-in utility functions that can be used to achieve a myriad of functionalities over strings. Although the String class is sufficient enough to perform almost every function, it has a potential deficiency. The objects of the String class are immutable, which means that once the object of the String class has been created, it cannot be changed or modified. [Read more…]